Publisher: Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review
Authors: Lisa Fazio
In an online experiment, participants who paused to explain why a headline was true or false indicated that they were less likely to share false information compared to control participants. Their intention to share accurate news stories was unchanged. These results indicate that adding “friction” (i.e., pausing to think) before sharing can improve the quality of information shared on social media.
Publisher: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Authors: Lisa K. Fazio & David G. Rand & Gordon Pennycook
Repetition increases the likelihood that a statement will be judged as true. This illusory truth effect is well established; however, it has been argued that repetition will not affect belief in unambiguous statements. When individuals are faced with obviously true or false statements, repetition should have no impact. We report a simulation study and a preregistered experiment that investigate this idea. Contrary to many intuitions, our results suggest that belief in all statements is increased by repetition. The observed illusory truth effect is largest for ambiguous items, but this can be explained by the psychometric properties of the task, rather than
an underlying psychological mechanism that blocks the impact of repetition for implausible items. Our results indicate that the illusory truth effect is highly robust and occurs across all levels of plausibility. Therefore, even highly implausible statements will become more plausible with enough repetition.
Publisher: Current Directions in Psychological Science
Authors: Lisa K. Fazio and Elizabeth J. Marsh
Testing oneself with flash cards, using a clicker to respond to a teacher’s questions, and teaching another student are all effective ways to learn information. These learning strategies work, in part, because they require the retrieval of information from memory, a process known to enhance later memory. However, little research has directly examined retrieval-based learning in children. We review the emerging literature on the benefits of retrieval-based learning for preschool and elementary school students and draw on other literatures for further insights. We reveal clear
evidence for the benefits of retrieval-based learning in children (starting in infancy). However, we know little about the developmental trajectory. Overall, the benefits are largest when the initial retrieval practice is effortful but successful.
Publisher: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Authors: Lisa K. FAzio
Background. Tasks that involve retrieving information from memory, such as answering short answer questions, are more effective at improving learning than
restudying, concept mapping, and other study techniques. However, little is known about how often teachers naturally provide these retrieval practice opportunities during lectures and classroom discussions.
Aims. To identify how often teachers ask questions that require retrieval, what types of retrieval questions they ask, and whether teachers in high-growth classrooms differ in their use of retrieval questions compared to teachers in low-growth classrooms.
Sample. The sample included twenty middle school mathematics classrooms that showed high growth on a test of mathematics achievement and twenty with low growth. For each classroom, we examined a videotape of one class period.
Methods. We coded the number of teacher questions in each lesson, and the number and type of questions that provided an opportunity for retrieval.
Results. We found wide variability in the frequency and type of questions asked across classrooms. On average, almost half of the non-classroom management questions provided an opportunity for retrieval. However, teachers in high- and low-growth classrooms asked similar numbers and types of retrieval questions.
Conclusions. Teachers naturally use a wide variety of retrieval questions in their mathematics classrooms. As such, improving their use of retrieval opportunities will require only small changes to their natural practice, rather than large changes to their instructional style.
Publisher: Journal of Educational Psychology
Authors: Darren J. Yeo and Lisa K. Fazio
This study suggests that learning strategies should be flexible across and within domains. Consistent with recent frameworks, rigid dichotomies between domains and instructional sequences should be avoided. The optimal learning strategy depends on the kind of knowledge to be learned (e.g., stable facts vs. flexible procedures) and the target learning processes (e.g., inducing an underlying principle vs. memory and fluency building).